The Fermi Paradox. Are we alone in the Universe?
Enrico Fermi, one of the most famous physicists of the 20th century, was a very interesting person. This man was one of the few physicists who are successful in the theoretical and in the practical field. Moreover, «the few» is said very softly; people who have attained such success in these almost incompatible concepts among the whole scientific world can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Chain reaction, beta decay, the world’s first nuclear reactor – that is not a complete list of cases which were not only justified, but also implemented.
In addition, Fermi was interesting that constantly generate new ideas in a variety of areas, often distant from its elements – nuclear physics. One day, while speaking with his colleague, Edward teller, Fermi turned his attention to the fact that there is a lot of circumstantial evidence and arguments for the existence of extraterrestrial civilization, however, no more or less reliable trace of their presence.
Actually, this was later called «Fermi paradox». At the time of its formulation (1950), he was just a clever physical pun – humanity has not had sufficient committed funds of research of the Universe, and it seemed that eventually, this paradox will be resolved either in favor of the version that aliens do exist, or Vice versa, that we, rational beings, are the only of its kind creation of nature.
However, the development of human means of cognition, on the contrary, deepened and exacerbated the conditions of the paradox. It turned out that the potential for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations is not just a lot but infinitely many. For example, the «Kepler» telescope exploring only a quarter of a percent of the celestial sphere, has discovered more than 1,000 planets orbiting nearby stars and about 4000 candidates of the planet. Even if we assume that the habitable one planet out of 1000, the number of intelligent civilizations in the Galaxy in the tens of thousands! However, we still have no direct proof of the existence of aliens, nor any of their traces.
But that’s not all. The most amazing thing in the history of the «Kepler» that the actual results obtained not more than 10 years ago, was predicted theoretically by the American astronomer Drake in the middle of the last century. This is a unique case in the history of astrophysics when the theory is built on pure probability theory with many assumptions, almost fully confirmed.
What is the result? On the one hand, we have increasing evidence that other civilizations should be, but on the other hand, no matter how we tried to find concrete evidence of their existence, the arguments against him more and more categorical. Something that resembles a game of chance, when betting more and more growing, but none of the players can not win.
Many have the impression that someone is stopping the earth to see the «brothers on reason». And I must say, this impression has some Foundation. The fact that modern science, once faced with some new phenomenon, often very skeptical of any alternative interpretations of the phenomenon. And this, in fact, nothing is wrong, because scientific method and based on critical thinking and a fairly large amount of skepticism. However, in terms of space exploration and extraterrestrial life, this approach is just too extreme.
Consider modern physics. In the newest trend of the last century – the theory of strings, considered as many as 5 hypotheses completely contradict each other, but their provisions are eagerly discussed and, most importantly, these studies are sponsored. Or, for example, computer science: a study of hypothetical quantum computers (which haven’t even made mathematical apparatus) spent billions of dollars in grants, although the results are not just far away in General, it is unknown whether they… And so on. There are many scientific fields in which to conduct many studies, despite their futility. And only to seek contact with other intelligent creatures all the initiatives, that is, are cut at the root.
You can certainly argue that programs to search for extraterrestrial intelligence SETI and the like, which monitoring is conducted and so on. But, because this is all passive observation as we pointed out, must somehow themselves be active… Humanity’s next ten «messages to aliens» with the help of radio telescopes, Yes two «Voyager», launched beyond the Solar system, yet does not «identified».
Generally, in the serious scientific world many scientists refer to the people involved in the search for extraterrestrial civilizations, as fools, inventing a perpetual motion machine. Well, to those who believe the Earth is flat. Against the background of tens of thousands of inhabited systems, the probability of the existence of which is very large, to put it mildly, strange.
There is another interesting trend. As soon as somewhere there is more or less «sharp» information about some of the supernatural phenomena immediately appear there by representatives of government and close access to all public information about these phenomena. In such cases the mass: from the disappearance or death of all kinds of tourists, such as the group Dyatlova to censoring videos the flight of Apollo to the moon.
A separate category represents a technical means, information of which is kept secret. For example, quite by accident in 2008, he became aware of two American spy satellites, built on the principle of an orbital telescope «Hubble», but with much higher performance. The defence Ministry immediately declared that the satellites that monitor all suspicious actions of various terrorist groups. However, this explanation seems unlikely as make observations with a telescope of this design over the surface of the Earth, to put it mildly, uncomfortable.
And so on and so forth. All advanced States there are a lot of mysterious equipment with supposedly «military» purpose and therefore classified. But even a minimal analysis of the facts, devotees of wide publicity, said that the purpose of these objects is not military, and their imaginary «secrecy» is just a way to divert attention and discourage the curious to ask too many questions.
If to consider history of occurrence of such prohibitions and strange circumstances, the picture is quite so entertaining: almost all such restrictions were introduced relatively recently, not more than 15 years ago. In 2006 was partially classified data on flight Hubble in 2008, data about all the «strange» phenomena, recorded by the American pilots in the atmosphere in 2007 on the outcome of virtually all flights of the Apollo missions.
By the way, Apollo. In 2006, NASA announced the loss of 700 (seven hundred!) boxes with videos and photographs captured by the astronauts near the moon and on its surface. Moreover, no convincing arguments why it’s missing the record by far is the province of all mankind, NASA could not answer, saying only that «kept not we, but the center of the Gotthard – here with them and ask».
What happened in the world? Why both scholars and politicians or state officials are so concerned by issues which, by and large, the earlier case and nobody really was?
And here’s what happened. In 2002, Bruce Campbell and Steve young for the first time in the history of mankind has received evidence of the existence of planets outside the Solar system. Then, within just four years was confirmed by the presence of almost three dozen such planets. But then came the «Kepler», was finally proved right Drake about the number of planets in star systems.
And most recently, in April 2017, the former head of NASA Charles Bolden talked about the fact that for a long time many governments know about the existence of aliens. And all efforts aimed at the classification of «uncomfortable» information is just an attempt as long as possible to keep this fact secret because the realization that we are not alone in the Universe, can have a very negative impact on our future…
Given all the above, we can safely say that the Fermi paradox, once jokingly expressed, resolved in favor of the proponents of extraterrestrial life. Although direct evidence is still not too much of a coincidence indicates that we are not alone. Very soon, perhaps in the next century, we will be able if not to make contact with other life forms, then at least reliably make sure that they are.