Riddles of the terrible fate of the Romanov family
About the terrible fate of the representatives of the Russian Imperial Romanov says a lot. But still clear in this matter, despite the fact that in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg in the Royal tomb, the remains, allegedly belonging to Nicholas II and his family, and the Russian Orthodox Church recently canonized these people.
Nicholas II March 2, 1917 he abdicated the throne both for himself personally and for his heir, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich, — handing over power to his brother, Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich. March 8 the former Emperor as the arrested was transported by order of the Provisional government at Tsarskoe Selo, the Alexander Palace. There also was placed arrested March 8 wife and children of Nicholas II, the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarevich Alexei, Grand duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia.
In August, the Romanovs were moved to Tobolsk, and in the early spring of 1918 — in Yekaterinburg. It was there, in the infamous Ipatiev house, in the night from 16 to 17 July they were all brutally murdered. The body of the last Emperor and his family the government moved to a mine near the village of Koptyaki in the tract of Four brothers (near Yekaterinburg) and burned, then pouring on the charred remains «to be sure» even a few cans of sulfuric acid…
At the time of troubles many members of the Imperial house faced destruction. So, the Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich after his arrest and exile in Perm in the night from 12 to 13 July 1918 was murdered by the Bolsheviks on the neighboring Perm Motovilikha plant, together with the Grand Duke died and his Secretary Nicholas Johnson.
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich, princes John, Constantine and Igor Konstantinovich, Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley (son of Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich from his marriage with Princess Olga Paley Valerianovna) survived the exile in Vyatka, and then to Yekaterinburg. In the summer all the same terrible to Romanov in 1918 these individuals some time contained in the city of Alapaevsk of Verkhotursk district of the Perm province.
On the night of July 18, the exiled members of the Imperial family were lucky on the way to Sinyachikha, on both sides of which there is an old abandoned mine. One of them unhappy and found their last resting-place: all of them, except Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich (he was shot in the head, dropping the dead body in the mine), alive dropped down. Then the shaft threw grenades…
In our time the examination found: the majority of prisoners did not die immediately. Death brought on lacerations and hemorrhage obtained by flushing the shaft from the shock wave.
In January 1919 (exact date unknown) after a long imprisonment without trial in the Peter and Paul fortress were shot and buried in the yard, in a common grave, the great Prince Pavel Alexandrovich, a TB patient (to death they carried him out on a stretcher), the Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (he has repeatedly stated that Grand Dukes of the Romanov needs to give themselves from those high posts which they held by tradition), the Grand Dukes Nicholas and George Mihailovici.
By the way, Nikolai Mikhailovich was a member of the French entomological society (under his editorship deviation edition of «a Memoir on the Lepidoptera»), President of the Russian geographical and historical societies, a doctor of philosophy of Berlin University and a doctor of Russian history at Moscow University. A close friend of Leo Tolstoy, this man in his political views differed greatest radicalism, recognizing the need for Russia, a reformist way of development and advocating a constitutional monarchy.
George M., adjutant-General, Lieutenant-General at headquarters Commander, was a famous numismatist, author of the book «Russian coins of the XVIII and XIX centuries» has received high appraisal of specialists of that time. For my money, he also prepared an edition of the 15-volume set of the numismatic documentary work on the history of monetary circulation of Russia «of the corpus of Russian coins of the XVIII—XIX centuries». In addition, Georgy Mikhailovich was the head of the Museum of Emperor Alexander III, later known as the Russian Museum.
It is noteworthy that one of the dead, Paul A., refused an offer of the plan of salvation: the fact that he needed to change into a military uniform of a hostile Russian state in which the Grand Duke said he’d rather go to the shooting.
The only one who managed to escape from the dungeons of the Peter and Paul fortress, has become a 30-year-old Grand Duke Gavriil Konstantinovich; in 1919 he emigrated abroad.
Fortunately, the other members of the Imperial Romanov family, deprived of property and the right to participate in public life of the state, one way or another managed to leave the country, covered by the «red terror». Someone of the emigrants died in extreme poverty, who had lived quite a prosperous life.
Currently, the relatives of the last Emperor of Russia live in many countries of the world. And, oddly enough, still trying to figure out what actually happened to the family of Nicholas II. After all, this tragic page in the history is still murky.
Makes no sense again and again to dwell on the version, according to which Nikolay Romanov, his wife and children were saved through the efforts of the European Royal houses or the German government and have lived abroad (according to other assumptions in the USSR).
We are not going to touch upon the history of the alleged survivors, Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanova, or her brother Alexei, the version of «severed heads» (that in the office after the death of Lenin leader of the proletariat found the jar with the pickled head of Nicholas II, wrote repeatedly).
All of these assumptions are, in fact, are based on dubious documents and testimonies. But we will be interested in recent materials relating to the mysterious case of the Royal family.
I must say that is so unlucky man, what was the last Russian Emperor, is hard to find. Nicholas II was not alone in this world, not good for him after death. Yes, in 1998 from Ekaterinburg with honors, moved to St. Petersburg and buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral mournful remains of the unfortunate family.
However, this dispute is about the king buried there or not, does not subside until now. Opponents of the official version, armed with documents and results of examinations, there were many. They argue that in the Cathedral, is buried not Nicholas Romanov and his family, and to defend their opinion are going to court.
I must say that at the end of may 2006, the skeptics have one more proof of his possible innocence; to hand the opposition was played by the results of the genetic analysis of the relics of Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, who was the sister of the last Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, and was brutally murdered in 1918.
In conducting a series of tests was attended by prominent specialists from the USA and the Russian doctor of science, fellow of the Institute of General genetics RAS, L. Zhivotovsky. It is noteworthy that none of the researchers has no doubt the final verdict: DNA Princess Elizabeth has nothing to do with genetic set women buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. From this it follows that transported from the Ekaterinburg remains cannot belong to the wife of Nicholas II.
Immediately arose another question: is it possible relics that are considered the remains of Elizabeth Fedorovny, belong to another person? Maybe the remains of which took DNA samples, too confused? But then the supporters of the official version was disappointed. The fact that the corpse of the Royal relatives was discovered in the mine near Alapayevsk even in the autumn of 1918. Then it identified several people, including the Confessor of Grand Duchess, father Seraphim. Identification of the body, by the way, was carried out in the presence of members of the white Commission of inquiry.
For several years the priest all the time followed the coffin of Elizabeth Feodorovna through Eastern Siberia and Shanghai in Jerusalem, where the remains of Grand Duchess finally was buried. I should say that the Confessor is thoroughly documented all the way from Alapaevsk, so that doubt as to the identity of the source of DNA taken for the samples is not necessary.
In General, the history of the identification of the remains of the last Imperial family of Russia looks not too clear. Actually, it began-it is an international scandal, especially not really advertised the Soviet media.
It all started with the fact that in 1989 the Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, went to the UK and was invited to the Soviet Union, the Queen. However, the Royal person, which is a close relative of the deceased of the Imperial family, indignantly rejected the invitation, saying he did not want to visit a country that has not figured out what happened with her relatives. And then…
Barely Gorbachev managed to return home, as a scriptwriter Gely Ryabov has officially stated they and several men were found the remains of nine skeletons with numerous injuries, allegedly belonged to the Romanov family and a few close to the Emperor. Then the Soviet officials categorically stated that no doubt the investigation simply can not be.
But the Russian immigrants who are well versed with the methods of work of former compatriots, seriously questioned this and was created to clarify the question of the Russian expert Commission abroad to investigate the fate of the remains of members of the Russian Imperial house murdered by the Bolsheviks in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918 (this, by the way, the full name of the organization).
Opponents of the official version made such a noise that in 1993 the public Prosecutor of Russia has directed on excitation of criminal case on investigation of the murder of the Royal family. However, the recognition of the skeletons found near Ekaterinburg, the Romanov remains, according to foreign experts, was simply «pushed through» by a government Commission, which prior to 1998 was not able to understand this fact.
Indeed, the Commission found so many inconsistencies that to put an end to the murder of the Imperial family yet. So, on the skull, according to the Soviet experts, which belonged to Nicholas II, somehow missing callus that formed the monarch after the attempt on his life in Japan. The majority of experts is convinced that this trail didn’t disappear even if after so long a time. Because the head of the Emperor to the death well was markedly knotty thickening!
And what about the Protocol in which Yurovsky claimed he was shot in the head of Nicholas II to focus? And this despite the fact that buried in the Cathedral of the skull there is neither input, nor output bullet holes!
By the way, Ryabov and his team found the burial of two children’s skulls. Presumably, they must belong to Maria and Anastasia Romanov. However, it was later revealed that the episode should go about the disappearance of the heir to the throne Alexei and his sister Maria, as the remains, allegedly belonging to the crown Prince, they could not be. The male is, as we know, suffered from hereditary disease — hemophilia, traces of which scientists have not been able to detect in the studied remains.
Such «inconsistencies» has accumulated so much that even some members of the state Commission ventured to vote against its findings, as many experts considered it necessary to Express a dissenting opinion. However, Russia has loudly declared that the fate of the last members of the Royal family of the Russian Empire is established.
Today, the Foreign members of the expert Commission require that in the state Duma held hearings on the issue of the Royal remains. Otherwise, they are going to apply to the court for reconsideration at the disposal of the Emperor. «Opposition» only achieve one thing: the Russians must recognize that in the Cathedral are buried is not a Romanov, and nameless victims of the Civil war.
Perhaps in the Ipatiev house on that terrible July night and in fact died «suitable» family of a local resident? Presumably, this could be a family of a certain Filatov, in which, by the way, «missed» one little girl; maybe that’s why near Yekaterinburg and have not found the remains of Maria Nikolayevna? But in this case, again the question arises about what actually happened to Nicholas II, his wife, daughters and son.
And again you will see a version according to which the leaders of the Soviet Union «saved» the family of the Romanovs in the extreme case, considering these people an important trump card that can be used in the future in some political game. Then perhaps there is something in the fact that the Emperor and his family lived life in the Soviet Union under false names.
According to some reports, the last Russian monarch died in the mid 50-ies in Sukhumi. However, most likely, the true Romanov remains, according to foreign experts, will not be found ever, since after the execution of their carefully destroyed, shattering into dust that remained after a thorough acid treatment. To refute this version, by the way, as impossible as to prove.
And one more curious fact. When, in 1998, in the Cathedral city on the Neva river in the Imperial burial vault was zacharenakis «Ekaterinburg remains,» the names of those who died, the ceremony was not performed, since the Russian Orthodox Church politely denies the buried bones belonging to members of the last Imperial family of Russia.