Maybe the Tatars is the Great Russia?
Since high school, every person well-known traditional version of the Mongol invasion on Russian land. According to her, it was something like this: at the beginning of the thirteenth century in the Mongolian steppe, Genghis Khan gathered the nomads and formed a large army and wanted to conquer the world. In the army reigned severe discipline. After the conquest of China by the troops of Genghis Khan went West, and by 1223 approached the southern lands of Russia, where there was a famous battle on the river Kalka, when squads of Russian princes were defeated.
At the beginning of 1237 the Mongol-Tatar army invaded Russia, leaving behind popelish in place of hundreds of cities, and then invaded the territory of Poland, the Czech Republic and reached the shores of the Adriatic. However, after that, the Mongol-Tatars went back because I was afraid to leave, though ravaged, but still dangerous Russia.
Since then, the land of Russia was under the yoke of Mongol-Tatars. Lands of the Golden Horde stretched from Beijing to the Volga, and its rulers contracted with the Russian princes to tribute. Khans of the Mongol-Tatars were the terror of the people looting and all kinds of atrocities, and the princes received special permission to Board.
The official version mentions that among the Tatars there were many Christians, so some of the princes who ruled in Russia, often installed with the khans quite a warm relationship. Moreover, some of the princes, with the cooperation and assistance of the Horde forces even held the throne. In certain cases, Russian forces fought on the side of the Horde, and the princes were very close people in khans. It looks more than strange, since it would be logical to assume that the attitude of occupants must be completely different.
After Russia became a little stronger, she was able to resist the Horde, and in 1380 a battle on the Kulikovo field, in which the Dmitry Donskoy managed to defeat the troops of Khan Mamai. A century in opposition troops entered the Horde Khan Akhmat and Prince Ivan III. For a long time the opponents stood on opposite banks of the Ugra river, however Khan then came to the conclusion that he had little chance, therefore, ordered to retreat, and marched with his army beyond the Volga. These events among professionals is considered to be the end of the yoke of Mongol-Tatars.
Scientists who study the annals of the Golden Horde period, there were many questions related to the disappearance of dozens of manuscripts during the reign of the Romanov dynasty. In particular, according to historians, the impression is that of «the tale of the ruin of the Russian land» was removed carefully all the places mentioned on the yoke. Was left only small fragments, which said about a certain «trouble» that befell Russia. However, there is not a single word about the invasion of the Tatars.
There were many other oddities. In particular, in the story about the «evil Tartars» contains a fragment, which the Golden Horde Khan ordered to execute the Russian Prince-Christian just because he refused to worship the pagan Slavic God. Part of the chronicle sources generally contain very amazing phrase, in particular «God» (these words are said Khan before the start of the campaign, and crossed).
Researchers are also interested in the question of why so many Christians among the Mongol warriors? In addition, in the descriptions of warriors and princes contains unusual moments: according to ancient sources, many different typical Caucasoid appearance, with blond hair and large blue or gray eyes.
And one more thing that is puzzling scientists: for some unknown reasons, the battle of the Kalka Russian princes surrendered to «parole» the representative of the Horde. On the part of the strangers was a man Płoskinia, and for some reason he kissed a cross. It is conceivable, the researchers said, he was Orthodox, moreover, was the representative of a noble family.
Historians during the reign of the Romanov dynasty, in addition, evaluated the number of Mongol-Tatar army in the three or four hundred thousand. However, such a large number of soldiers and military horses would just not be able not only to hide in groves, but also to feed themselves in the harsh winter. In recent decades, researchers have reduced these figures and agreed on the three tens of thousands. This raises another paradox: such a relatively small army could not conquer and keep in subjection those people who lived in the territories from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. However, in such quantity Mongol-Tatars could collect taxes and restore order, in other words, to perform the functions of the police.
Such a large number of paradoxes and mistakes ultimately gave rise to what some experts, among them A. Fomenko, made a sensational statement, which is based on a mathematical analysis of ancient manuscript sources: about any invasion from the territory of modern Mongolia and speech can not be. The events that took place in Russia – it is an internecine struggle, in which the princes tried to seize power, and in fact for Russia, no, the Mongols did not attack. In knyazhaya teams were Tatars, but they were not the Horde, and the inhabitants of the Volga, which is long before the historical vicissitudes of lived with Russia in the neighborhood.
And the fact that some historians refer to as the Mongol-Tatar yoke, were in reality the struggle for sole rule of the Rus, which was fought between the descendants of Prince Vsevolod. Researchers agree that among princes there was a constant struggle, and the unification of the Russian lands did not happen immediately.
But… then against whom fought Dmitry Donskoy? And who was really mom?
A characteristic phenomenon of the era of the Golden Horde was the presence along with the powerful military power of the secular authorities. There was, in other words, several rulers: the Prince, the representative of the secular power, and Khan – in other words, warlord. Some Chronicles say that at the head of the troops of the Horde was standing magistrates. On the basis of a detailed study of these texts, historians have suggested that in fact the Horde was the regular Russian army. A Mongol-Tartary – the Great Russia. Thus, following the logic of the researchers, it is possible to make the assumption that Russia, not the Horde conquered vast territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific through the Indian and Arctic oceans. That Russian troops was scary to all of Europe.
Moreover, experts note, the word «Mongol» probably came from the Latin «megalion», which means «great», the German word «Ordnung» (order) – the word «Horde», «Tatarstan» — from «Tartarus» (the horror of hell).
It is necessary to say a few words about the names. Most people in those days wore a few names, one that was used in the world, and second, which were given at baptism or received in battle. Some historians believe that the names of Genghis Khan and Batu Khan belonged to the princes Yaroslav and Alexander Nevsky. According to ancient manuscripts, Genghis Khan differed tall, had green-yellow eyes and luxurious long beard. However, men are representatives of the Mongoloid, not wearing a beard. And according to the Persian scholar and historian, Rashid al-DIN, in the family of Genghis Khan’s children were born with gray eyes and blond hair. Thus, experts are convinced, Genghis Khan is Prince Yaroslav, who bore the second name of Genghis (with a prefix «Khan», which meant «military leader»).
Something similar can be said about the Batu. The Chronicles contain a mention that Batu was svetlanaray, blue-eyed and blond. Moreover, you can even find the phrase that Alexander Nevsky had the nickname of Batu.
After a detailed study of the chronicle sources, the researchers found that mom and Ahmad belonged to a noble birth, who had the right to rule in Russia. The struggle between Alexander Nevsky and mother, therefore, is one of the episodes of internecine struggle for power in Russia.
In ancient sources it is indeed possible to find evidence that the Horde went to war with Russia. However, it is necessary not to forget that Russia in those days was called a relatively small territory, which captured Kiev, Kursk, Chernigov, Seversky land and the territory near the river ROS. And, for example, the inhabitants of Novgorod were already Northern residents.
Thus, it appears that if the Prince of Moscow decided to go to southern neighbor war, it was quite possible to call the Horde invasion of Russia.
Therefore, in the history of Russia there is still a lot of white spots, which is practically unknown. Of course, this version may well be refuted, but this job already for a new generation of historians.