Christopher Columbus. The story of a successful adventurer
was Christopher Colombes —
a Spanish Jew.
From the journals.
The era of the Great geographical discoveries was one of the most romantic periods in the life of mankind. The rapid development of navigation not only opened for Europe the world map, but also raised social nisin on top but a huge number of all sorts of shady characters.
If you look closely to the participants of those expeditions, we almost will not find there scientists. With great difficulty we find merchants (although about half of the expeditions was made on the money of private individuals, large and medium-sized business). It was not there and the priests hungry for fame on the basis of missionary work. Excuse me, but who is it then was? And there were adventurers, rogues and swindlers of all stripes and varieties, gentlemen of fortune, romance big road and other, and other…
Moreover, they were not only simple sailors. Commanders and instigators of most of the expeditions of Drake, Magellan, Cortez – all of them were either condottieri or just thieves.
The most important of the discoveries of that period was the discovery of America. The person who made it, covered themselves with undying glory. His name was Christopher Columbus. And it is curious that almost all sources describing his life, begins his narrative just after his first expedition, modestly keeping silent about what was before. In addition, the events that took place around it after the beginning of his expeditions is quite not logical.
This is weird: one gets the impression that much of the biography of the great seafarer deliberately overlooked. If, however, to understand his life more deeply, the reasons for this «shyness» of the authors are quite clear. Columbus was so extraordinary a person, that to describe all his acts would be somewhat «uncomfortable»…
No one knows exactly where Columbus was born, however, the names of his parents is known, in any case, they are mentioned metrics, and in the writings of historians. For a long time it was thought that our hero was born in Genoa. To date, 2 Italian, 2 Portuguese and 4 Spanish cities dispute the right to be called the birthplace of Columbus.
It is known that approximately 12 years Columbus was living in Genoa, where he was able to observe the features of social life and business at that time. Christopher has learned the rules of the game, where business is closely intertwined with power structures, and to 25 years, Pavelski after graduating from University, having gained some experience in the marine trade and having acquired the necessary connections, he moved with his family to Portugal. The reason for the move was a conflict with the authorities of Genoa. Columbus, having by that time a private enterprise, tried to cheat his partner, who later became the Doge. Even in our days, the business of «throwing» power, then the long regret it, and then it was all like death.
In Portugal, Columbus develops a broad range of activities: involved in many commercial expeditions, visiting virtually all European countries, travels a lot to Africa. It is here that he comes up with first thoughts on a different way in India than those who tried to find Portuguese sailors (bypassing Africa).
The problem was that one of the crown princes of Portugal, Enrique, nicknamed «the Navigator» is so long and hard promoting this idea that even with the current king of Portugal, Juan 2, was the great-nephew of Enrique, no way the way to India was not even considered. That is authority, especially Royal!
However, the perseverance of Columbus could be the envy of even the devil. The wily Genoese was able to convey to king John his ideas, but something like Columbus for himself, the king did not like, and he did not give permission to this enterprise. That, however, did not prevent him to give Columbus the opportunity to capitalize on some government orders.
Juan even could not assume, what a cunning rascal he admits to the use of public funds. For three years the Columbus earns several times more than in my entire previous life. João the 2nd was a politician, first and foremost, dealing with the strengthening of Royal power and not really interested in the finances of the state (the good, the then Portugal’s economy was stable enough), so mischief Columbus, nobody paid special attention.
But how much rope does not curl, and twist into a loop. The last good Scam our hero was a contract to supply the construction of the fortress of Elmina in Ghana. In less than two years the fortress was built, however, Diogo de Azambuja municipality, the chief of construction and the first commandant of the fortress staged a surprise audit and found that the unclean hands of our hero stuck a few hundred thousand reais. And since the king himself paid special attention to the first fortress of «Black Africa», the scandal erupted serious.
To the loop, however, is not reached, but Christopher had in 1485 with his family to flee from became suddenly very uncomfortable of Portugal to Spain. That, however, did not prevent him to keep almost all the money earned in Portugal. By this time he has finally thought of the idea, how is it possible to sail to India directly and not via South Africa.
Business in Spain was a little off the rules, which Columbus used in Genoa and Portugal, in addition, Granada war, which the king of Spain, Ferdinand the 2nd led in person, left a definite imprint on all the processes in the Kingdom.
I must say that the Ferdinand was a very sensible monarch and the Affairs of the Kingdom when it was kept in relative order, and all kinds of dubious activities is not particularly encouraged. After about half a year all his money in unsuccessful enterprises, Columbus left with almost nothing, and the only idea that remained in him, was sailing to India across the Atlantic ocean.
Supported by the authority of their new Spanish friends, he provides the king of Spain your business plan trade routes to India, but again finds no support. And again, as in the case of the Portuguese king, everything depends on the ambitions of the «Genoese upstarts».
What did Columbus? First, to be Viceroy of all the open land, which meant formally to submit to the Spanish Crown, and in fact – anyone. Second, to obtain the title of «chief Admiral», which again came to nothing obliges, but provided him a very good allowance. Not surprisingly, the kings refused.
However, from the point of view of Finance, the plan was really very good. So much so that even Juan 2nd, the king that Columbus actually «cheated», I wrote him a letter that he could return to Portugal without fear of persecution from the authorities, if only he had implemented his plan.
But Columbus was not to the Portuguese king. His plan is interested in the wife of Ferdinand, Queen Isabella. Being a very devout Catholic, she appreciated that part of the plan of Columbus, which dealt with missionary activities and the benefits that gave route to India to bypass the Ottoman Empire. In General, the Royal couple finally gave Columbus a «good» for the expedition.
And again manifested the «tricky» nature of our hero. Gaining sponsors for the expedition, he pretended to be the «poor relation» who has absolutely no money. Reached before that, making the budget of the expedition, he took up half Martin of Pinson, which contributed to its Charter Fund on his behalf, promising to pay in the end. Pinson joined the expedition as an ordinary shareholder with a share much smaller than that of Columbus.
During the first voyage of Columbus strongly teased by Pinson, eventually forcing him to exit and go home by yourself. It later played a fatal role in its destiny. Ahead of the ship of Pinson for a few hours, so Columbus presented the case before the king, that Pinson was forbidden to appear at court, as a person who has lost the Royal confidence. From the obtained stress Pinson became ill and a few months died, giving Columbus the right not to return the occupied money from him.
Opening new lands, Collomb quite quickly realized that it was not India, but, to admit it openly was tantamount to death. And Columbus decided to wait until the last, along the way, using his status of Vice-king to the fullest.
For rapid development of open land newly made Vice-king did not hesitate any means. He knocked the king has the right to recruit settlers from prisoners, since they didn’t have to pay – they worked for their freedom. In addition, under a new expedition, he received huge loans from rich men of that time, promising to pay them has not yet been found spices and jewels. And «on the ground», our financial genius created such a wonderful state that future dictatorship will seem just an innocent holiday camps. The local Indians first «tied» to earth land, like serfs, and then even turned in fact into slaves.
But the most interesting was that almost all income Columbus was not allowed out of his hands, paying only to that of the king, and then, only slightly covering issued to him for the amount. No profits «ten doubloons one nested» and speech could not be.
For nearly six years he has introduced in the world until Vasco da Gama rounded Africa not from the South, found the real sea route to India. The outrage of the deceived nobles was so great that Columbus was sent a special Navy team which arrested the adventurer in chains brought it to Spain.
However, the financial sector of Spain, had begun to explore new lands, seeing in them great potential, petitioned the king about the innocence of Columbus, and he was quickly released.
The last voyage of Columbus was a kind of «atonement.» In it, he really acted like a true Explorer, without worrying about your pocket. Two and a half years, he surveys the coast of Mexico, and generates a map. And two years later he dies in Seville.
A few years after the death of Columbus his son both make a kind of coming out. However, we are not talking about what I understand by this, our contemporaries. Naslednichki just show that left them with unforgettable pop.
Total as Diego and Fernanda Colombia was such that he exceeded the annual income of the whole of Spain again some sort of five. All the money that somehow «knocked» Columbus sponsors, the Crown and just a good «gesheft» to the new continent, he was sent to his good friend, Luis de Cerda, a Spanish nobleman, who, in fact, helped Columbus to present his project the Royal couple of Spain. De Cerda died several years before the death of Columbus, however, his successors continued to help Columbus. And then handed all the finances for both of his sons.
Christopher Columbus was one of the most controversial personalities in the history of mankind. It was a brilliant pioneer, ahead of his time. However, we should not forget about the dark side of his nature. Excessive love of easy enrichment of the few who brought happiness. Perhaps that is why the open of the earth named not in his honor, and in honor of the man, thoroughly examined them and proved that it’s not just «not India», and in the New world. This man was Amerigo Vespucci, but that’s another story…