What was left of Peter I in St. Petersburg
Today researchers believe that the history of Russia began to systematically study and describe in detail only in the times of Catherine II. There are records made by the hand of the Empress, in which she wrote your own script of Russian history. Russian mistress did not tolerate the views of historians who have tried to articulate their vision of historical events, other than her versions. Helped her to describe the history of Russia invited experts from Germany. They laid the so-called Norman theory of Russian history, in which the basic idea is the inability of Russians to self-government.
The very first suffered the distortion of the epoch of Peter I. the Originals of all preserved documents of Peter’s time were either destroyed or hidden in secret archives. A. S. Pushkin had to collect the crumbs of information, when writing his work «the History of Peter.» The manuscript of Alexander Pushkin have also been classified, therefore, the poet was able to reflect the true history of Russia, edited by foreigners.
In Soviet times, historians have performed a social order, and they were not concerned to restore the real historical events associated with the development of Russia.
The typical method of the Soviet system to create new legends and wide spread in society is the story of «the Copper horseman».
Few people know that in the early 20th century the monument with the same name on the city map did not exist. Was «Stone rider» and it is connected with some legend about the three attempts of Peter I to jump on a horse from one coast of Neva on another. Legend has it that king twice failed the jump and when he got angry, throwing the accusation of God, God was angry and punished the wicked – Peter froze. Only after the celebration of 100-anniversary with day death A. S. Pushkin in 1937, the monument became known as the Copper horseman.
Another historical false – Peter was not the founder of St. Petersburg. Bookmark the Peter and Paul fortress also happened without him. Many objects of Petersburg, the creation of which was attributed to the great king, in fact, was built much later.
The ancient Chronicles, Dating from 560 BC, tell us that in the North at this time people lived the Hyperboreans. And none of them would not know if the messenger of this unknown people came to the Olympic games with the gifts of the God Apollo. From historical documents it is known that the Hyperboreans lived on an island surrounded by the Baltic sea. And in the annals of Dionysius the Small, who lived in the 4th century BC, it is said that the Hyperboreans inhabited the Valdai hills. In the writings of Herodotus, too, can find a mention of this legendary people. He called them «a thousand years», emphasizing the age of the ethnic group. There is a version that these Hyperboreans – the descendants of the Aryans who migrated from North to South of the territory.
It is also known that in 1694, long before the advent of Peter the great, at the mouth of the Neva river the city was With Peter B, and the Gulf of Finland was called the St. Petersburg sea. The reason for this is quite convincing: the main occupation of the inhabitants was fishing, and a symbol of all fishermen was St. Peter. Therefore, the new city founded by the order of Peter the Great, though, and was called St. Peter burh (means – the fortress of St. Peter), no relation to the name of the Russian Tsar reformer had. But someone needs to link city’s name with the name of Peter I.
There are documentary sources, which assert that Peter was not going to build the city on the Neva. The decision it adopted, after the unsuccessful Prut campaign, in which Russia lost access to the Azov sea. Besides Peter the Great did not want to return to the hated Moscow, so the choice fell on the coast of the Northern seas.
So, the city was built from scratch, and alongside, with existing. The basic construction of the «second» of St. Petersburg was conducted on Vasilievsky island. Those who refused to move there by order of the king, transported to the island by force. The primary residents of the new city became slaves, who also were forcibly taken to «Paradise».
Another false legend: the city is built «on the bones» of their builders. Everyone who got there as builders or settlers realized that the area is very bad. The construction was carried out «in shifts», so if you change people as quickly as possible to leave this godforsaken place. So the impression was that the new slaves have come to replace the dead.
After the death of Peter the Great, everybody left town and Petersburg, in the literal sense, was abandoned and gradually all objects began to come into disrepair.
The myth is more sustainable, the assertion that the construction of St. Petersburg the Tsar «opened a window to Europe». Only in the 19th century, after the commissioning of the Sea channel, large merchant ships could enter the city. Until then, there is no «window» does not exist. The transfer of cargo from large ships to small vessels, outside the city ports was not viable. In addition, while there was Northern war, the merchants of the party avoided the territory in which the operations were conducted.
So what objects were considered the most grandiose achievements of Peter the Great and what is their fate?
The first is the Ladoga canal, whose construction began in 1719. For successful trade with Europe and they needed a safe waterway, linking the Baltic sea with the cities located on the banks of the Volga. This channel was the largest in Europe. But after the commissioning of the new Ladoga canal, hydraulic structures, executed during the reign of Peter I, fell into disrepair.
Second – the Novodvinskaya fortress. Created a protective structure was for the protection of Arkhangelsk from attacks from the sea. The fortress was on the island Linsky Priluk, 20 km from the city of Arkhangelsk. The decision on the construction of the fortress Peter the great took Narva after a defeat, obtained in the course of military battles with Sweden. The fortress was involved in repelling the attacks of the Swedish fleet tried to break through to Archangel. The time has passed. The fortress helped to defend the town when the Anglo-French Armada sailed to the Russian coast during the Crimean war. Currently only small fragments of the protective structures built under the leadership of Peter, are in good condition.
Third Peterhof Palace «mon Plaisir». Translated from French, this name sounds like «my pleasure». Peter I independently designed the Palace, made sketches of the building and the drawings, the adjacent garden. Russian autocrat followed the construction of the «Monplaisir». The Palace became a favorite place for rest and work of Peter the Great, there were held the receptions, the dinners, the rooms, the palaces were exhibited numerous works of art, brought by the Emperor from other countries.
Fourth – The Admiralty. Admiralty shipyard on the banks of the Neva river was founded by Peter I in 1704. The object represented by the earthen Fort established around the perimeter of the bastions 100 guns. At the gate of one of the buildings was erected a tower with spire. The fortress was built barns, stocks, blacksmiths, workshops, warehouses and boathouses. Today in the Main Admiralty building is the headquarters of the Russian Navy.
Fifth – the Winter Palace. This building was built as the Imperial residence. And the place for the building was well chosen: the embankment of the Neva. Finish – red marble, numerous plaster bas-reliefs, magnificent doors and stairs from oak, French floors…
In the Palace died, Peter I. later the Palace was substantially remodeled.
Currently in St. Petersburg there are no surviving buildings constructed during the reign of Peter I. for Example, Peter and Paul Cathedral was built during the reign of Anna Ioannovna. Cancer with the ashes of Alexander Nevsky appeared in the city in the reign of Elizabeth, Isaac, was destroyed by fire during the life of Peter I, St. Nicholas Cathedral was built during the reign of Catherine, the Summer Palace of Peter I novodel of the 20th century, the wooden building of the Admiralty was demolished in 1711, Kikin’s home was rebuilt many times and they also cannot be attributed to the legacy of Peter the Great, etc. When he wrote the words: «I Love you, Peter’s creation…», from the creations of Peter I in the city for nothing!
Although, it is possible that something has survived. According to legend, on the slopes of the Pulkovo heights, on the orders of Tsar Peter the great, was covered by an earth mound, which put the capsule with the decree of the king to build an Observatory. Perhaps it is a creation of the Great king Peter remained untouched by time.