Decoded the Neanderthal genome was made publicly available

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Secrets of the past: Decoded the Neanderthal genome made publicly available. Denisova cave in the Altai is a gold mine for biologists, anthropologists, geneticists, and even archaeologists. It consists of more than 20 cultural layers of different eras. In the nineteenth century, scientists began studying the artifacts found during the excavations in this cave. That’s where more than 280 thousand years ago our ancestors lived.

Расшифрованный геном неандертальца сделали общедоступным

Our ancestors differed from us in a substantial amount of a nucleotide, but apparently we still are a bit similar (photo by erix!/Flickr).

In 2010 in the hands of Dr. Svante Peebo (Svante Pääbo) from Institute of evolutionary anthropology, max Planck society were the phalanges of Neanderthal man found during excavations in the Denisova cave. The find belonged to the Russian scientist Anatoly Derevianko and Michael Sonkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The genetic material contained in the phalanx, scientists have subjected to detailed analysis. In order to provide a complete data map, each position of the genome of 0.038 grams of the bone was tested 50 times. To do this it is necessary to notice even the slightest difference of the genome of this particular Neanderthal from the information which he inherited from his parents.

Note that in Denisova cave lived not only Neanderthals, but also so-called Denisovsky people. Although the validity of the existence of the latter is still subject to doubt in the scientific world, we can say that its genome was significantly different from the genome of the Neanderthal.

Peebo and his team a few years earlier, determined that the mitochondrial DNA of the finger differs from the DNA of modern man on the 385 nucleotides, whereas DNA of the Neanderthal man differs from ours only 202 nucleotides. But then the sequence of the genome was not analyzed in as much detail as this time.

«We have received some knowledge on many aspects of life and the Neanderthals, Denisovsky people. We have also improved our knowledge about the changes that have occurred in the genomes of modern humans, when they separated from the ancestors, and went on its own path of development,» says Peebo.

The results of their work, scientists were posted on the Internet that each geneticist was able to work with this material. Such a detailed analysis of the genetic sequence of a Neanderthal was the first time. We can say that even the genome of a modern human have not been studied so intently for content .

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