The lost cities
Still find mysterious cities and settlements which change ideas about the past of our planet. What was once considered an indisputable fact, after the excavation and study of materials turns out to be a myth, and history have to be rewritten.
Ancient and mysterious Arkaim
In the Chelyabinsk region by the end of the twentieth century it was assumed the construction of the irrigation system. Before in 1987 he organized a scientific expedition to explore the terrain. As a result of research was discovered sensational discovery — an ancient fortification, called Arkaim. The researchers assessed this discovery as one of the most significant archaeological events of recent decades. Construction of the irrigation system was able to postpone for several years.
Scientists believe that the heyday of the arch refers to XX-XVI centuries BC, the middle bronze age. It is located at the confluence of Big feature Vulpes Vulpes Karagan and Utyaganka.
In 1991 embarked on a thorough study of the fortifications, which had opened 8,000 square metres of space, scientists were able to determine the exact layout of the settlement, to determine its diameter (170 meters) and make the reconstruction of the premises. If we consider that the strengthening of supposedly 4000 years, many findings are striking and surprising.
The settlement is surrounded by two rows of walls. Exterior wall height greater than 5 m and thickness 5 m, with four entrances. The inner wall height of 7 m and a thickness of 3 m, there was only one entrance and to get into the city, it was necessary to go across the street ring that made it impossible for a surprise attack. The total area of the walls of 20000 square meters, for the better protection of the fortress was surrounded by two-meter ditch. These constructions protected the city from enemy attack.
In Arkaim was located an apartment house, about 60 dwellings, located inside and outside the walls. The rooms were storage rooms, bedrooms, kitchens with stoves, utensils and other household items. In the courtyards of the houses located workshops — pottery, saddlery, tailoring, blacksmiths. Almost all the buildings were made of logs, covered on the inner side with clay. In the middle of the fortification there was a Central area the size of 25 m x 27 m.
On-site-building found the remains of people and animals, including horses. After studying the skeletons of people scientists have determined that they belonged to the Caucasian race.
I was especially struck by the storm drain system, water is evacuated outside the fortifications, which was rare in those days.
How many years lasted the fortress is unknown, but it is destroyed by heavy fire. Was it an accident or was set on fire while attacking the enemy — could not figure out
In these places on the area of 350 km was discovered other settlements according to the type of the arch belonging to the same time. They are called Country Towns. This suggests that in those days there was a unknown science of an advanced civilization, accurate information about where yet — excavations are still underway. Arch — a monument of history, mysteries which are full of hypotheses and assumptions.
Mysterious stelae of Axum
The mysterious city is located in the North of Ethiopia — Axum. The Axumite Kingdom was a major power, ruling this territory from IV century BC to X century ad.
The main mystery of the ancient city — the stele. In Axum and the surrounding area more than 170 pieces. Most of them are small and roughly treated. But there are a few (not more than five) massive monolithic buildings, the most impressive stele is unfortunately broken, the weight of which more than 500 tons, and the length of the pedestal 33.5 meters.
The most famous obelisk with a height of 24 meters and a weight of 180 tons. In 1937, Ethiopia was invaded by Italian fascists. They cut the obelisk into three parts and transported it to Italy. After the war, the UN recommended to return the obelisk to Ethiopia, but this was done only in 2005. The Italian side took on the costs of transporting and assembling building — $ 4 million. In the summer of 2008 the monument was installed at the historic site.
The mystery is that of the stele is made from solid blocks of basalt. As we know, basalt is one of the most solid of rocks. In addition, a huge basalt monoliths, it was difficult to bring from the quarries, which were far from the city.
It is believed that the age of the buildings dates from the beginning of our era, but there is a tradition according to which they built the colossus, able to melt stone. The giants poured melted basalt in a wooden mold, where it solidified. Then it is polished with special tools. It is a beautiful legend, as actually delivered and processed blocks at a considerable distance — yet unresolved task.
Scientists are trying to solve the issue, what’s the point to install the stele is badly drafted or is processed and ornate, over which long worked. Perhaps a strong and rich state have established monuments to show the power of the country. According to another version — the obelisks of rough stone were placed over the graves of soldiers.
Why the people left Machu Picchu?
Another mysterious place is Machu Picchu in Peru, which means «old peak». In 2007 he was awarded the status «New wonder of the world». When exactly was the city — is unknown, it is assumed that it existed for only 100 years — since 1440. Then, for no apparent reason, the inhabitants of the city somewhere mysteriously disappeared. Some historians suggest that the reason for this was the invasion of the conquistadors, but put forward other versions.
The city holds many mysteries. One of them — who could build high in the mountains the city if the Incas did not even know of the wheel? After all, some of the stone blocks used in the construction of the tier, weighed over 200 tons.
What purpose built the mysterious city. The discoverer of the lost city Bingham believed that it is a religious center and there was a Temple of the priestesses of the Sun, which the Incas worshiped. Other assumptions: the building served as a fortress for protection against enemies; the city was built for the ruler Pachacutec as a summer residence; it is a magical place where the sky meets with the earth; it’s an astronomical Observatory for observing the stars. In favor of the fact that Machu Picchu was carried out astronomical observations, says stone, is located on the main square — it has a diamond shape in the form of the constellation southern cross and focused on him. It is interesting that the corners of all buildings in the city directed strictly to the sides of the horizon.
Ancient Incas because of the technical capabilities are unable to cut and process the stones. According to legend, the city built a more powerful and developed civilization of the inhabitants of Atlantis and Lemuria.
Facts about Machu Picchu:
• the city was inhabited more than 12,000 people;
• it was built for 80 years and lived in it for 100 years;
• over 380 years of it no one knew;
• opened the city a little more than a hundred years ago by Bingham;
• buildings are at an altitude of 2450 meters.
Why do people leave Machu Picchu? The reasons for the alleged epidemic of smallpox, the Empire lost its importance after the arrival of the Spanish colonizers. Over one of the priestesses have committed violence, after which the perpetrator and all his relatives should be strictly punished, but to live in this place, it was impossible, therefore, the inhabitants left the city.
Still looking for Inca gold, according to rumors, it is in huge quantities hidden somewhere. Some believe that he was kidnapped by the Nazis during the Second World war; according to another version — it is in the Vatican the Catholic Church, others believe that it has taken the last heir of the Great Inca in Poland. In one of the rooms of the city found a secret door, behind which may be hidden treasures.
Secrets don’t always open up to people, but the more interesting and exciting to solve them, penetrating into the very depths of our history.