Ten descriptions of hell in different cultures and religions
In almost every culture of the world and religion is found in the description of the underground world, where after death the wicked are sent, and where they are subjected to horrible tortures.
Despite the fact that every description of hell is unique, there are many elements that many peoples are strikingly converge, even despite the fact that they had no contact with each other.
Nilfheim is a rather strange form of hell, which is described in the Norwegian and German cultures. This is not the land of fire, as hell is described in other cultures, and the icy landscape, a place ruled by Hel. Nilfheim is located near the Shore of the dead. In these places, according to the myths, lives of Nidhegg — a giant snake that feeds corpses.
Of the nine worlds in Norse mythology Nilfheim is considered the most deep and dark, and myths argue that there is a place nilfheim when the ice and fire world Muspelheim were combined.
This Kingdom is the birthplace of the wicked, but also serves as the anchor of Yggdrasil — the World Tree that holds the Universe. Hel was the mistress of the realm of the dead after he was expelled from Asgard, as was the daughter of Loki.
In pre-Christian Finnish believed that the souls of the dead arrived on the shores of the river Tuoni, and then they were transported in Tuonela the gatekeeper of death tutti. Unlike most other underground worlds in this list, Tuonela was much darker continuation of life on Earth. People who went to Tuonela, was to bring the things of the world to survive there.
In this terrible place even was allowed to happen to people who wanted to see their dead relatives, although this trip was very dangerous and often fatal. Especially dangerous was the river of Tuoni, which was filled with poisonous snakes. In Tooele there was no punishment, except a punishment eternal life.
3. The house of lies (Zoroastrianism)
According to the Zoroastrian religion, the first thing the soul encounters after death is a bridge Shinawatra, separating the world of the living and the dead. Bridge thinner than a hair and sharper blades. It is guarded by two four-eyed dog. Souls are evaluated based on their actions in life — if bad deeds outweigh the good, then the bridge leads to the underworld filled with demons.
Alternative descriptions tell of the demon Vicarese that comes from the depths of the underworld and drags the wicked soul to the Abode of Lies — the Zoroastrian version of hell. The house of lies is described as a place of filth, where the people themselves are dirt, and the soul is continuously tortured for their actions.
Demons of the Monastery Lies hundreds, each of which represents a specific sin. For example, Apaosha is a demon of drought and thirst, and Sarika is a demon that makes poisons. Description of the Abode of Lies vary depending on the translation of the ancient Zoroastrian texts, but the elements described above are common to all descriptions.
4. Duat (Egypt)
Ancient Egyptian texts describe the afterlife realm of the duat, which is controlled by Osiris, God of the dead. The book of two ways contains a map depicting the journey you need to take through the Duat. «The book of two ways» describes the landscape of the duat is very similar to Earth, but it contains mystical elements such as the lake of fire and iron walls.
When approaching Batu soul had to pass through the gates, protected half animal-half human, often very eloquent names such as «Drinking the blood that came from the Slaughterhouse» or «One who eats the excrement of his hindquarters».
After passing through the gates of the heart of a deceased person was weighed with a feather. If the heart was heavier than the feather, it was eaten by a demon Ammut.
The name «Gehenna» originally referred to a valley outside Jerusalem where followers of the God Moloch burned children in the process of sacrifice. Later, it became the interpretation of hell in the Hebrew, where were sent sinners to atone for their sins. Hell resembled the Christian version of hell is much more than most of the items on this list.
It was a deep and desolate place, where a continuously burning flame and it was raining. The heat from the flame 60 times greater than the power of any flame on Earth. In the air hung the smell of sulfur gas, and the earth flowed a river of molten metal.
In Greek and Roman mythology, Tartarus is described as a deep dark dungeon full of torture and suffering. While most believe that hell was Hades, actually it was just a place for all the dead, and Tartarus was even deeper than Hades, and was intended only for sinners.
People went to Tartarus after meeting with Radamant, who judged them, and appointed them a sentence. In Roman mythology, Tartarus was surrounded by three walls and a fiery river Fleheton.
It was guarded by a nine-headed monster known as the Hydra, and Tisiphone, who watched over all souls. In the lower part of Tartarus lived the Titans, the enemies of the gods who was defeated and imprisoned.
Similarly, in Greek mythology, Tartarus is described as a place that was originally a prison for those who threatened the gods, but later became a hell for sinners. Sinful souls were prescribed the punishment appropriate to their sins. For example, Tantalus was banished to Tartarus after stabbed his son and cooked him a meal that was fed to the gods.
Tantalus was punished by suffering from hunger and thirst. However, he was knee-deep in the water, which dry up as soon as he leaned over and gave him fruit trees grew, which raised their branches, when the Tantalum to him stretched.
7. Dante’s Inferno
Many popular ideas about the Christian hell is represented in the creation of the author of the Renaissance, Dante Alighieri. In his «divine Comedy» describes an allegorical journey through heaven, purgatory and hell, surrounded by the river Acheron.
The first circle of hell — quite a pleasant place called Limbo. It is the habitat of unbaptized souls who did not commit any sins. Other levels correspond to each of the seven deadly sins.
In the second circle the lustful are punished by torment twisting and plectania their hurricane on the rocks.
The third circle of hell meant for gluttons and gluttons, who are rotting in rain and hail.
On the fourth round, torturing the avaricious and prodigals that are doomed to dragging heavy and eternal battle with each other.
Those who during life is often ruled by anger, are in the fifth circle, where they are constantly fighting with each other in the river Styx. They also never will feel the state of happiness.
In the sixth circle are the heretics in flaming tombs.
The seventh circle is divided into sub-levels for those who committed violence against others, themselves (suicide) and blasphemers.
The eighth circle is reserved for cheaters and is divided into 10 sub-levels, each of which have different torture for sinners.
The last circle contains cheats, frozen in the ice. In the center of hell Satan himself chewing on the body of Cassius, Brutus and Judas.
Niraya naraka or hell in some branches of Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. Although descriptions of the Naraka differ in different religions, everywhere it is described as a place of punishment based on the karma.
Naraka is only a temporary place of stay, a shower, and as soon as the sinners will pay for their karma, they are reborn.
The number of levels in Naraka varies from four to more than 1,000 in various descriptions. For example, Makarora is a place for those who are profiting at the expense of others. In Maharaja devour the flesh of sinners snake-demons of the Ruhr.
In Kumbhaka inhabited by sinners who eat animals and birds. They are boiled in boiling oil many minutes, how many hairs on the animals that they killed.
Diui — hell in traditional Chinese culture, which vaguely resembles Naraka. It consists of several levels, the number of which differs from 4 to 18. For each level watching your judge, which assigns the punishment of sinners on the basis of their deeds during life.
In Chinese culture it is believed that Yama Loki of Naraka asked to follow Diui, where he eventually shared a 96 816обиталищ for sinners in 10 levels that sinners will have to pass before reincarnation. During the Tang dynasty, this description was changed to 134 level of hell with 18 levels of pain and torture.
The worst level of hell is Avici, which is for the biggest sinners. Avici is different from other levels Deuy that souls remain here forever without any hope for revival.
Xibalba — the Maya name of hell. It is considered that this place really existed on earth in a cave system near Belize. Myths of the Maya claimed that in this place the lords of the afterlife, organized various bizarre forms of torture for the hapless souls. And the Lord worked together on the punishment of visitors Xibalba.
Ahalpuh and Chalgan caused sochenge pus from the bodies of people. Chamiabak and Camefrom caused the decomposition of the bodies of the dead. Ahalmez and Ahalteke led to madness and deadly disasters in people’s homes.
HJK and Pathan brought death to the travellers, causing them to vomit blood or squeezing them to such an extent, until the blood filled their throats. Visitors Xibalba additionally checked through before you go to one of the six Houses of death.