Alexander the great: the great military leader, which was not
It is, of course, Alexander the great a hero
but why break chairs?
N. In. Gogol «The Government Inspector»
Antiquity has given mankind many great personalities had a huge impact on the subsequent history of mankind. One of such personalities who became famous in the field of military Affairs, is Alexander the great. And this is not surprising: no one living after him the generals have not achieved so much in such a short time. Alexander conquered a vast territory, conquered almost all the major powers of his time, covered themselves with undying glory.
However, if you take a sober look at its history and compare some facts, it appears that it is not so simple as many imagine. Questions for strategic talent Macedonian and validity of his acts more than answers.
Moreover, the issues begin in such seemingly remote from military Affairs things as the circumstances of the death of the hero. He didn’t die in battle though, due to his temper, could have done it more than once. Alexander, often forgetting everything, rushed into the fray, from which seven had more serious injuries and a lot of light.
The cause of Alexander’s death was never established. That, at least, strange, considering the many surrounding doctors, scribes, friends and girlfriends. Alone versions of death there are five pieces: from fatigue and wounds to alcoholism, and fever. But the most mysterious is that all the historians who had been invited, not even denying the version of the poisoning, and not talking about it.
But there is one interesting fact. The official story was that Alexander had four most trusted commander, with whom he had planned all their military operations. It was Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus. Subsequently, they will be called the «diadochi», that is, the successors of Alexander. They will divide the state into four parts and make each of the kings of these lands. But it will be later.
One of the diadochi, Ptolemy, immediately after the death of Alexander did the following: using his connections, he stole his body quickly mummified him and true to yourself parts proceeded to Egypt, the king of which became. The mummy of Alexander was irrefutable evidence that he and Alexander «bequeathed» to rule Egypt. Special piquancy gives that fact that the internal organs of Macedon (who also had to undergo mummification) mysteriously disappeared. That is, Ptolemy deliberately concealed all evidence which might point to the poisoning of the king.
Ptolemy «snatched» to himself the tidbit of Macedonian heritage. The remaining three of the diadochi divided the remnants from the king’s table. However, the open hostility at this stage is not reached, it will be also a little later.
Interest methods of war used by Alexander. All the ancient historians represent the campaigns of Alexander, as a series of solid victories and unprecedented success. In fact it was a bit more prosaic. In fact, Alexander won two major battles: Issus and Gaugamela. Both battles were with the army of the Persians, which were joined to certain allies. In both cases, the numerical superiority was on the side of the Persians. And in both cases the success of Alexander was accompanied not so much by his military genius as a full mediocrity of his enemy – king Darius the Third.
In the battle of Gaugamela, in General, the Macedonian army actually suffered defeat, but a fantastic folly of Darius, who escaped from the battlefield, is simply not allowed the Persians to finish the defeat of the Macedonian army.
All other achievements in the capture of cities, castles and whole provinces no relation to military science was not in the city and the fortress banal bribing. «A donkey with a sack of gold will take any city» – this aphorism, the author of which is Alexander’s father, Phillip the Second, used his son to the fullest.
By the way, about my father. To understand what Alexander was a family, you need to talk a bit about his unforgettable dad. Philip the Second lived a full life of the king, to whom everything is permitted. 20 of the 23 years of his reign he was engaged in the war, simultaneously satisfying all their whims and desires. Only the official wives of the king had nine pieces, not to mention the numerous mistresses and concubines. But women the king was not enough: he without any hesitation and lived with men, appointing his lover any «delicious» posts: court Manager to head the security detail. Wines, nectars and other establishments for drinks in the Palace flowed freely, the benefit of the money received from captured Greek cities, Philip had at least a dime a dozen. It seemed that the passion of the king will undermine his health, but no, Philip has lived long in spite of the enemies, and would have lived many more years if not for the jealousy on the grounds of homosexuality. He was killed by someone Pausanias, his bodyguard and former lover.
Alexander fully adopted the lifestyle of his father. Wherever he was, he did everything with great pomp and insatiable appetite. The parable of the Gordian knot perfectly demonstrates the temper of the young king and his unwillingness to understand the problem too deeply. In his excuse it may be noted that, despite numerous attempts to present Alexander as a homosexual (a sin than many modern historians and cultural figures), no one has ever provided any references to the relations of Alexander with men. Women – Yes, the campaigns of Alexander was not how aggressive, how many an entertainment and more like travel on sex tours. Remember though, the story of Alexander and Thais, when, to escape from sexual pleasures, Alexander had to burn the whole city. But the male lovers had not been observed.
But the most interesting in the case of Alexander the great is the complete lack of descriptions of his campaigns, made by his contemporaries. It is also very strange, if you consider the fact that the army of the Macedonians was accompanied by a staff of clerks and historians.
Someone Haret from Mytilene wrote, «the History of Alexander» as much in ten volumes, however, a detailed analysis of the works allows to relate it to the historical writings. First, it completely lacks chronology, that is, the events are located in books chaotic, and, secondly, the work itself resembles a collection of anecdotes and tales of military service at that time. A sort of «good soldier Svejk», only in the ancient Greek era. Taken by Alexander in the campaign Onestreet philosopher, also wrote his book about Hiking the great. However, it tells more about the animals and birds of the conquered lands, than about Alexander. And so on and so forth. More than a dozen traveled with the army of «intellectuals» of the time wrote in the campaigns of anything except include a description of the hikes and the role of «commander in chief» in them.
But, excuse me, but what about official, so to speak, full-time historians? Any. All historical aspects of direct relevance to the army was in charge of a certain Callisthenes, the official historian of the staff of the army. However, for some tragic accident, he was executed on charges of conspiracy, and all of his work mysteriously disappeared. Later some impostor who took the name of Callisthenes and published allegedly kept the proceedings of the first executed Callisthenes, which have painted the image of Alexander as a military genius, though to the original, they, most likely, nothing had.
In the official history of the image of the «great commander» introduced one of the diadochi, Ptolemy. He published the first writings, where he described the «military genius» of Macedon. All subsequent Greek and Roman historians used the work of Ptolemy as the basis for their labors. What a strange glory, right? This lack of Chronicles gave and gives rise to a variety of historians to doubt that all of your achievements of Macedonia is obliged to Alexander alone.
What happens in the squeezed residue? With confidence we can say, that Alexander the great really existed, but it was a completely different person than we all used to think. In the language of our time it was a «media personality», a kind of boy-a major, behind which stood several large clans represented by the four diadochi. These people were engaged in the expansion of Macedonia under the name of Alexander, the extravagant disposition of which was a beautiful cloak of dark Affairs of oligarchs of the time.
These people knew that in the West (where there was the Roman Republic, from which Macedonia has been defeated), they catch nothing, so sent his forces to the East. Which is perfectly confirmed by history: in less than 150 years, both from Macedonia with Greece not gone – they were conquered by Rome. Egypt lasted almost 300 years. And that left himself Seleucus (Mesopotamia, Central Asia and India piece), the Romans were unable to «digest».